Diabetes Home > Diabetes Statistics
Many people with type 2 diabetes can control their blood glucose by:
- Following a healthy meal plan and exercise program
- Losing excess weight
- Taking oral medication.
People with diabetes may also need to take medications to control their cholesterol and blood pressure.
Diabetes self-management education is an integral component of medical care.
Among adults with diagnosed diabetes:
- 16 percent take insulin only
- 12 percent take both insulin and oral medication
- 57 percent take oral medication only
- 15 percent do not take either insulin or oral medications.
Pre-diabetes is a condition that raises the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. Some people with pre-diabetes have blood glucose levels higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as diabetes.
People with pre-diabetes have impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Some people have both IFG and IGT.
IFG is a condition in which the fasting blood glucose level is 100 to 125 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) after an overnight fast. The level is higher than normal but is not high enough to be classified as diabetes.
IGT is a condition in which the blood glucose level is 140 to 199 mg/dL after a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. This level is higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as diabetes.
In a cross-section sample of U.S. adults aged 40 to 74 years (tested from 1988 to 1994):
- 33.8 percent had IFG
- 15.4 percent had IGT
- 40.1 percent had pre-diabetes (IGT or IFG or both).
Applying these percentages to the entire U.S. population in 2000, an estimated:
- 35 million adults aged 40 to 74 years had IFG
- 16 million had IGT
- 41 million had pre-diabetes (there is overlap between the IFG and IGT groups).
Progression to diabetes among those with pre-diabetes is not inevitable. Studies have shown that people with pre-diabetes who lose weight and increase their physical activity can prevent or delay diabetes and even return their blood glucose levels to normal.