Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitors
These diabetes medications prevent the breakdown of sugar and carbohydrates in the digestive tract, slowing their absorption. These medications are used to decrease blood sugar levels after meals. These medications include:
Other Dipeptidyl Peptidase Inhibitors
Besides Januvia, there are three other medications in this class: saxagliptin (Onglyza™), linagliptin (Tradjenta™), and alogliptin (Nesina®). These drugs increase incretin levels in the body. Incretin is a hormone that helps to control blood sugar.
One ergot alkaloid, bromocriptine (Cycloset™), is approved for treating type 2 diabetes. Bromocriptine is actually an older medication that has been used for quite some time for other uses, although it was only recently approved for treating diabetes.
Bromocriptine works uniquely, compared to other diabetes medications. It works as a dopamine receptor agonist, which means that it binds to and stimulates dopamine receptors. It is thought that stimulating dopamine receptors in the brain at certain times of the day "resets" the biological clock and improves metabolism. It is thought that seasonal changes in the metabolism of wild animals are due to similar mechanisms.
There are a variety of combination medications available for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, including:
- Alogliptin and metformin (Kazano®)
- Alogliptin and pioglitazone (Oseni®)
- Glipizide and metformin (Metaglip®)
- Glyburide and metformin (Glucovance®)
- Linagliptin and metformin (Jentadueto™)
- Pioglitazone and glimepiride (Duetact®)
- Pioglitazone and metformin (Actoplus Met®)
- Repaglinide and metformin (PrandiMet™)
- Rosiglitazone and glimepiride (Avandaryl®)
- Rosiglitazone and metformin (Avandamet®)
- Saxagliptin and metformin (Kombiglyze™ XR)
- Sitagliptin and metformin XR (Janumet® XR)
- Sitagliptin and simvastatin (Juvisync®).