Central Diabetes Insipidus
Your body has a complex system for balancing the volume and composition of its fluids. Your kidneys remove extra body fluids from your bloodstream. This fluid waste is stored in the bladder as urine. If your fluid regulation system is working properly, your kidneys make less urine to conserve fluid when the body is losing water. Your kidneys also make less urine at night (when the body's metabolic processes are slower).
In order to keep the volume and composition of body fluids balanced, the rate of fluid intake is governed by thirst, and the rate of excretion is governed by the production of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also called vasopressin. This hormone is made in the hypothalamus, a small gland located in the base of the brain.
ADH is stored in the nearby pituitary gland and released from it into the bloodstream when necessary. When ADH reaches the kidneys, it directs them to concentrate the urine by returning excess water to the bloodstream, and therefore, make less urine.
Central diabetes insipidus is caused by damage to the pituitary gland, which disrupts the normal storage and release of ADH.
Damage to the pituitary gland can be caused by different diseases, as well as by head injuries, neurosurgery, or genetic disorders.
Central diabetes insipidus causes frequent urination. The large volume of urine is diluted, and mostly water. To make up for lost water, you may feel the need to drink large amounts of water.
You are likely to urinate frequently, even at night, which can disrupt sleep or, on occasion, cause bedwetting. Because of the excretion of abnormally large volumes of diluted urine, you may quickly become dehydrated if you do not drink enough water.
Children with central diabetes insipidus symptoms may be irritable or listless and may have: